Security and Human Rights


COURSE TITLE Security and Human Rights
If the ECTS Credits are distributed in distinct parts of the course e.g. lectures, labs etc. If the ECTS Credits are awarded to the whole course, then please indicate the teaching hours per week and the corresponding ECTS Credits.
3 6
Please, add lines if necessary.Teaching methods and organization of the course are described in section 4.

Background, General Knowledge, Scientific Area, Skill Development

Scientific Area


Learning Outcomes
Please describe the learning outcomes of the course: Knowledge, skills and abilities acquired after the successful completion of the course.
By the end of the educational process, students will be able to: a. define the concepts of “human rights” and “security”, b. associate “security” with criminalization processes and think critically about the concept of crime as a social construct c. understand the relationship of crime policy with formal social control and policing, d. distinguish between different policing standards, e. describe the Greek police system (structure, organization), f. know about institutional recognition and protection of human rights, g. reflect critically on human rights violations, distinguish their systemic nature and identify the population groups that are most vulnerable, h. design and implement research programs to study human rights violations by the state power, i. contribute to the planning of crime prevention policy.
General Skills
Name the desirable general skills upon successful completion of the module
Search, analysis and synthesis of data and information,


Adaptation to new situations

Decision making

Autonomous work


Working in an international environment

Working in an interdisciplinary environment

Production of new research ideas

Project design and management

Equity and Inclusion

Respect for the natural environment


Demonstration of social, professional and moral responsibility and sensitivity to gender issues

Critical thinking

Promoting free, creative and inductive reasoning

Search, analysis and synthesis of data and information, ICT Use

Autonomous work


Working in an international environment

Critical thinking

Equity and Inclusion

Promoting free, creative and inductive reasoning


The course content focuses on the concepts of “human rights” and “security”, in the light of the Police as a law enforcement body and an institution that exercises formal social control. In this context, the institutional framework for ensuring and protecting human rights (as well as their content) will be analyzed. In addition, the police phenomenon will be examined as an institution with specific organization and targeting (functions, policing standards) and as a result of specific historical and socio-political phases. The police system in Greece, distinguished from the European and Anglo-Saxon tradition, will be studied in terms of its special characteristics, its organization and functions as well as the formal and informal dimensions of policing.

The course will be developed in the following sections:

1. Acquaintance withstudents. Informing students about the learning objectives and feedback regarding their expectations. Presentation of the lectures’main axes and the way the course and exams will be conducted. Introduction to the concepts of ‘human rights’, ‘security’ and ‘public safety’. Introductory remarks on the concept of the ‘social construction’ of crime and its effect on the role of the police. Summary and conclusions.

2. The institutional protection of human rights: U.D.H.R., E.C.H.R., the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the E.U. Violations of human rights and their inseparable relationship with state power (crimes of the state): human rights as a criterion of governance. Summary and conclusions.

3. Policing in the light of criminological research (critical criminology, left realism, neo-classical theories, the square and the triangle of crime). The Police: role, functions, mission. Historical review of the development of the police system. Phases of shaping the issue of security and public police. Summary and conclusions. Discussion on the students’ assignements.

4. Policing and crime policy: determinants of crime policy trends over the last 30 years. Policing standards: community policing, problem-based policing, intelligence-based policing, third-party policing. Summary and conclusions.

5. Continue with policing standards: policing of criminal micro-areas, evaluation of police work, research-based policing, “quality of life restoration” policing / Zero tolerance (goals, characteristics, critique). Summary and conclusions. Reading a text from L. Wacquant’s”The Prisons of Misery”

6. The Greek police system: peculiarities and effects. Administrative structure of the Police. The distinction between Order Police and Security Police. Police and policing standards after the post-colonial period: the community period and the ‘insurance period’. Summary and conclusions.

7. Organization of police work: staff (administration, staff and regular staff), mission, guarding, detention and protection services. Summary and conclusions.

8. Organization of policing and accountability: direct policing, accountability and coordination of services. Complaints (conditions) and disciplinary review. Police responsibilities: prevention (investigations, protection of minors, surveillance) and repression (‘Judicial police’, arrests, protective custody, pursuit and search, appearance in courts, assistance to authorities and individuals). Summary and conclusions.

9. Assemblies, gatherings and the use of weapons as a special category of powers. Concept and discrimination, prohibition and dissolution of gatherings and assemblies, use of weapons. Formal and informal dimensions of policing: effectiveness, criminality of the Police, professional mentality and subculture, professional formation and socialization of the staff, the social profile of the police officer. Summary and conclusions. Music video: I can’t breathe.

10. Human rights and their violations by the Police. Reports by Greek and international authorities: police violence during public gatherings, police detention, ill-treatment of Roma, arrests, investigations, racist crimes. Jurisprudence of the E.C.H.R.. The inefficiency in the investigation of state violence as a result of an absent independent control mechanism or body and systemic factors. Case studies: incidents of police brutality reported in the course’s and description of the Greek cities’“civilians”. Summary and conclusions.

11. The Police as a victim: quantitative data and reasons for victimization of police officers. The special case of the possibility of self-protection within the police as a bureaucratic organization. Police training: the complexity of the training issue and a proposed framework of principles. Summary and conclusions. Discussion with a special guest.

12. Brief description of the content of all lectures and investigation/discussion regarding the meeting of the learning objectives and expectations of the students. Film: “Hate” by M. Kassovitz. Discussion.

13. Presentations of students’ assignments. Discussion.

Face to face, Distance learning, etc.
Face to face
Use of ICT in Teaching, in Laboratory Education, in Communication with students
Use of ICT in Teaching, Use of PPT in classes, Use of the class web for posting teaching material, announcements and for communicating with students.

The ways and methods of teaching are described in detail.

Lectures, Seminars, Laboratory Exercise, Field Exercise, Bibliographicresearch& analysis, Tutoring, Internship (Placement), Clinical Exercise, Art Workshop, Interactive learning, Study visits, Study / creation, project, creation, project. Etc.


The supervised and unsupervised workload per activity is indicated here, so that total workload per semester complies to ECTS standards.

Activity Workload/semester
Lectures 39
Interactive teaching 14
Preparation of a study


Independent study-Research and preparation for the exams 48
Presentation of a Study-Research 9
Final written examination 2
Course total 150
Student Evaluation

Description of the evaluation process


Assessment Language, Assessment Methods, Formative or Concluding, Multiple Choice Test, Short Answer Questions, Essay Development Questions, Problem Solving, Written Assignment, Essay / Report, Oral Exam, Presentation in audience, Laboratory Report,Clinical examination of a patient,Artistic interpretation, Other/Others


Please indicate all relevant information about the course assessment and how students are informed 


The final evaluation takes into consideration:

1) The elaboration and presentation of an assignment

2) The written examination.


Preparation and presentation of assignments:

The criteria for writing academic papers, assignments essays and presenting academic works apply. The main criteria are the accuracy and clarity of the use of terminology, the clear organization of the content and the appropriate use of the literature to develop the topic of the work. The use of ICT is necessary in the presentation.

Vidali, S. (2012), Police, Crime Control and Human Rights, Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki (in Greek)Course folder with official reports of independent authorities, human rights organizations, etc., posted on e-class




Cohen, S. (2021), States of denial: Learning about atrocities and pain, transl. Spyrea, S. Athens: Topos Publishing

Douzinas, K. (2006), The end of human rights. Athens: Papazisis

Gasparinatou, M. (2016), “Minors potential offenders and policing in times of crisis”, in M. Gasparinatou (2016), (ed.), Crime and criminal repression in times of crisis, Honorary Volume for Professor N. Kourakis, Athens: Ant. N. Sakkoulas, pp. 2044-2068

Lampropoulou, E. (2001), Internal security and society of control, Athens: Kritiki

Mavridis S. (2015), The dilemma Freedom or Security in the development of social life and the restriction of rights and freedoms, Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki

Papatheodorou, Th. (2005), Public security and anti-crime policy, A comparative approach, Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki

Paraskevopoulos, N. (2003), Targeting majorities. Terrorism and the rule of law, Athens: Patakis Samatas, M. [ed.], (2010), Views of the new surveillance. International and Greek Approaches, Athens: Vivliorama

Stamouli, E. (2015), Security policies in Greece in relation to organized crime and terrorism and their consequences for anti-crime policy, Doctoral Dissertation available at: page/24/mode/2up

Spanou, K. (2005), The reality of rights, state policies and access to services, Athens: Savvalas

Symeonidou-Kastanidou, E. (2013), Abuse of power & human rights, Athens-Thessaloniki, Sakkoulas

Tsapogas M., Christopoulos, D. [eds], (2004), Rights in Greece 1953-2003. From the end of the civil war to the end of the regime change, Athens: Kastaniotis
Vidali, S., (2007), Crime Control and Public Police. Vol. A and B. Athens – Komotini: A.N. Sakkoulas


Brodgen, M. (1987), ‘The emergence of the police: the colonial dimension’, British Journal of Criminology 27(1): 4-14

Downes, D., Rock, P., Chinkin, C., Gearty, C. [eds] (2011), Crime, Social Control and Human Rights. From Moral Panics to States of Denial. Essays in Honour of Stanley Cohen, Oxon:Routledge

Green, P., Ward T. (2004), State Crime. Governments, Violence and Corruption, London:Pluto Press

Kutnjak Ivkovic, S. (2005), Fallen blue knights: controlling police corruption, Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press

Lea,J., Young,J. (1993), What is to be done about Law and Order?, London: Pluto Press

O’ Neil, M., Marks, M., Singh, A.M. (2007), Police occupational culture: new debates and directions, Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI

Tonry, M. and Morris, N. (1992), Modern policing, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Rawlings, P. (2002), Policing: a short history, Cullompton: Willan Publishing





Alternative ways of examining a course in emergency situations


Teacher (full name): Sofia Spyrea
Contact details:
Supervisors: (1) NO
Evaluation methods: (2) Drafting two small papers in the form of answers to questions from a list of topics (100% of the total grade, 50% of 5 units each).
Implementation Instructions: (3) The examination of the course takes place according to the examinations programme, announced by the Secretariat of the Department of Social Policy. Before the exams, students must have registered in e-class with their academic account, otherwise they are excluded. On the day of the exam, the topics of the exam are posted in the field ASSIGNMENTS-EXERCISES, and the students are asked to answer and submit their answers in a file format (word), within the predetermined time of the exam. The answers are submitted in the field “ASSIGNMENTS-EXERCISES” of e-class. During the examination, students can use bibliographic sources, as the topics require critical thinking and deep understanding of the topics.

The papers and presentations students prepare during the semester are taken into account as supporting the grade of the written exams (an up to 3 points bonus). For the bonus grade to be added, students are required to obtain a passable grade in the written examinations (at least 5 out of 10).

Throughout the examination students can communicate with the teachers through the electronic platform of the course. On the same platform, students who are eligible to be examined orally and have declared it to the secretariat, are examined on the same topics of the written examinations.

Late submission of answers is not accepted unless it is due to a technical problem and the instructor is informed before the end of the submission time.


  • Please write YES or NO
  • Note down the evaluation methods used by the teacher, e.g.
  • written assignmentor/and exercises
  • written or oral examination with distance learning methods, provided that the integrity and reliability of the examination are ensured.
  • In the Implementation Instructions section, the teacher notes down clear instructions to the students:


  1. a) in case of written assignment and / or exercises: the deadline (e.g. the last week of the semester),the means of submission, the grading system, the grade percentage of the assignment in the final grade and any other necessary information.
  2. b) in case of oral examination with distance learning methods: the instructions for conducting the examination (e.g. in groups of X people), the way of administration of the questions to be answered, the distance learning platforms to be used, the technical means for the implementation of the examination (microphone, camera, word processor, internet connection, communication platform), the hyperlinksfor the examination, the duration of the exam, the grading system, the percentage of the oral exam in the final grade, the ways in which the inviolability and reliability of the exam are ensured and any other necessary information.
  3. c) in case of written examination with distance learning methods:the way of administration of the questions to be answered, the way of submitting the answers, the duration of the exam, the grading system, the percentage of the written exam of the exam in the final grade, the ways in which the integrity and reliability of the exam are ensured and any other necessary information.

There should be anattached list with the Student Registration Numbersonly of students eligible to participate in the examination.