Victimology and Restorative Justice

COURSE TITLE Victimology and Restorative Justice
If the ECTS Credits are distributed in distinct parts of the course e.g. lectures, labs etc. If the ECTS Credits are awarded to the whole course, then please indicate the teaching hours per week and the corresponding ECTS Credits.
3 6
Please, add lines if necessary. Teaching methods and organization of the course are described in section 4.

Background, General Knowledge, Scientific Area, Skill Development

Scientific Area
Learning Outcomes
Please describe the learning outcomes of the course: Knowledge, skills and abilities acquired after the successful completion of the course.
Students are expected to learn:

·         the different concepts and types of victimization,

·         the categorizations of victims and the different theoretical views with which the phenomenon of victimization is approached,

·         the principles, guidelines and implementation of victim prevention and response policies, the nature and characteristics of the respective programs,

·         the concept, definitions and procedures of restorative justice, its evolution over time and the key trends that are developing within it,

·         its foundations, basic principles and its relation to the contractual administration of criminal justice,

·         the basic distinctions of restorative justice based on their reference framework.

·         the basic criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions and programs.

·         Finally, they will be able to contribute to policy planning and the implementation of general and specific victim prevention and response programs, utilizing good practices of restorative justice (peaceful conflict resolution, out-of-court settlement, mediation, etc.).

The course is part of the field of forensic science and anti-crime policy. These are the courses “Criminology”, “International and Greek Penitentiary Policy”, “Criminal Phenomenon and Formal Social Control”, “Crime Policy and Globalization”, “Youth, Crime and Criminal Repression”, “Security and Human Rights”, and “Restorative Justice” and “Special Issues in Criminal Justice and Crime Policy”, which deal with criminal phenomena. With these courses, students acquire knowledge of theoretical and applied crime policy, which includes the range of measures that are established and implemented in order to prevent and suppress crime. Also, the interested parties are preparing for a more systematic involvement with forensic sciences at postgraduate level.

General Skills
Name the desirable general skills upon successful completion of the module
Search, analysis and synthesis of data and information,


Adaptation to new situations

Decision making

Autonomous work


Working in an international environment

Working in an interdisciplinary environment

Production of new research ideas

Project design and management

Equity and Inclusion

Respect for the natural environment


Demonstration of social, professional and moral responsibility and sensitivity to gender issues

Critical thinking

Promoting free, creative and inductive reasoning

Search, analysis and synthesis of data and information, ICT Use

Adaptation to new situations

Decision making

Autonomous work


Working in an international environment

Production of new research ideas

Critical thinking

Equity and Inclusion

Promoting free, creative and inductive reasoning


The course focus on the victim as a social agent of crime, the procedure of victimization, the perpetrator-victim relationships, the interactions between victim and criminal justice services during the award process and the connection of victims with social groups and institutions such as the media, various professional and political bodies and social movements.

The subject of the course is the conceptual identification of the victim (person or who suffers physical, psychological or financial damage or loss from some illegal, damaging or destructive human activity or from phenomena that cannot be controlled by the victim himself) and the examination of its position in the various forms of occurrence of the criminal phenomenon and its role in the social and criminal treatment of this phenomenon and victimization. In this context, current trends in out-of-court conflict resolution and in particular remedial justice as an alternative or complementary way of administering justice are examined.

Course Outline:

• Historical background (sacrifice, “expulsion”, retaliation, compensation, and arbitration). The emergence of criminological victimology and human rights victimology. The theoretical currents of victimology.

• Primary, secondary and tertiary victimization – From the guilty victim (the victim responsible for his victimization) to the asymmetric relationship or situation (the differentiated distribution of power as a necessary victimization condition).

• The position and participation of the victim in the criminal proceedings. The civil suit. Criminal and social protection for victims – Initiatives by international organizations to support victims. Restorative and conciliatory justice – mediation.

• Victim research and measurement of crime and victimhood. Methodology, comparisons, data processing. Extent and forms of victimization – Characteristics of victims. Fear of crime – fear of victimization and insecurity. Consequences of the fear of crime and reactions to reduce it.

• Concepts and definitions of restorative justice. Distinction between restorative and restorative justice and their relationship with Peacemaking Criminology. Restorative justice as a movement. The model of compensatory justice versus the model of restorative justice.

• Historical background: from Aristotle to modern forms of restorative justice. Trends in criminology that have favored the formation of modern restorative justice: victimology, abolition, Community standards of anti-crime policy.

• Basic principles of restorative justice. The victim in the spotlight, the role of the offender and the community. Distinguishing personal truth from judicial truth. Mechanisms and procedures of restorative justice.

• Examples of modern applications of restorative justice: Australia and New Zealand. Restorative justice as another way.

• Examples of modern applications of restorative justice: The case of Northern Europe and America. Restorative justice as complementary to the Justice System.

• Restorative justice in Greece: Institutional framework, crime categories, procedures, support mechanisms.

• Evaluating the effectiveness of restorative justice: categories of offenses, obstacles to implementation, advantages and disadvantages.

• The course specifically introduces certain forms of traditional and structural victimization (domestic violence, violence in the school environment, human trafficking, social exclusion, state violence) either through student work or through discussions involving special guests. In addition, specific categories of application of restorative justice in Greece (treatment of juvenile offenders, crimes against the environment) are presented through discussions with special guests.

Face to face, Distance learning, etc.
Face to face
Use of ICT in Teaching, in Laboratory Education, in Communication with students
Use of ICT in Teaching, Use of PPT in classes, use of the class web for posting teaching material, announcements and for communicating with students.

The ways and methods of teaching are described in detail.

Lectures, Seminars, Laboratory Exercise, Field Exercise, Bibliographic research & analysis, Tutoring, Internship (Placement), Clinical Exercise, Art Workshop, Interactive learning, Study visits, Study / creation, project, creation, project. Etc.


The supervised and unsupervised workload per activity is indicated here, so that total workload per semester complies to ECTS standards.

Activity Workload/semester
Lectures 39


Interactive teaching 10


Preparation of a study-Research 40
Independent study-Research and preparation for the exams


Presentation of a Study-Research


Final Written Examination


Student Evaluation

Description of the evaluation process

 Assessment Language, Assessment Methods, Formative or Concluding, Multiple Choice Test, Short Answer Questions, Essay Development Questions, Problem Solving, Written Assignment, Essay / Report, Oral Exam, Presentation in audience, Laboratory Report, Clinical examination of a patient, Artistic interpretation, Other/Others

 Please indicate all relevant information about the course assessment and how students are informed 

The final evaluation considers:

1) The elaboration of an assignment-paper

2) The presentation of an assignment

3) The written examination.


Preparation and presentation of assignments:

The criteria for writing academic papers, assignments essays and presenting academic works apply. The main criteria are the accuracy and clarity of the use of terminology, the clear organization of the content and the appropriate use of the literature to develop the topic of the work. The use of ICT is necessary in the presentation.



Cohen, S. (2021), States of denial: Learning about atrocities and pain, translated by Sofia Spyrea, Athens: Topos Publishing

Course file (texts, reports, articles) posted in e-class.


Additional- in Greek:

Andrianakis E. (2001): Victimology, Athens-Komotini: Α.Ν. Sakkoulas.

Artinopoulou V., Magganas A. (1996), Victimology and aspects of victimization, Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki.

Artinopoulou, V. (2006), Domestic abuse of women, Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki.

Artinopoulou, V. (2010), Restorative Justice, Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki.

Vidali, S. (2007), “Crimes of the state: Neither security nor freedom”, Honorary volume for Ioannis Manoledakis. II Studies in Criminal Law-Criminology-Crime History, Athens – Thessaloniki: Sakkoulas.

Daskalaki I., Papadopoulou P., Tsabarli D., Tsiganou I., Fronimou E. [ed.] (2000): Criminals and victims at the threshold of the 21st century, Athens: National Center for Social Research.

Dimopoulos Ch. (2006), Introduction to Victimology, Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki.

Zarafonitou Ch. (2002), The fear of crime, Athens – Komotini:  A.N. Sakkoulas.

Zarafonitou Ch. (2008), Punitiveness. Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki.

Karydis V. (2004), The invisible criminality, Athens – Komotini: A.N. Sakkoulas

Symeonidou-Kastanidou E. / Chankova D./Giménez-Salinas E. (2013), Restorative Justice in Criminal Matters: Towards a New European Perspective, Athens-Thessaloniki: Sakkoulas

Sykiotou, A. (2006), “The concept of the victim in human trafficking”, PoinCh 2006, p.684 ff.

Sykiotou, A. (2006), “The difficulties and the importance of recognizing a person as a victim of human trafficking”, contribution to the honorary volume in honor of I. Farsedakis. Pre-publication in the journal Criminology, (1) 2009, pp. 25-34.

Sykiotou, A. (2009), The Internet as a vehicle of victimization, Athens: Ant. Bag.

Tsiganou I., Daskalaki I., Tsabarli D. (2004), Images and representations of violence in the Greek school, Athens: Nomiki Vivliothiki.

Chouliaras, A. (2015), “Human Rights, State Crime and International Criminal Justice”, in V. Karydis and A. Chouliaras (eds.), Ethical Panic, Power and Rights: Contemporary Approaches, Athens-Thessaloniki: Sakkoulas, pp. 181-207.

In other languages

Brennan I. and Johnstone G. (2019): Building Bridges: Prisoners, Crime Victims and Restorative Justice, Eleven International Publishing.

Burford G., Braithwaite J. and Braithwaite, V. (2019): Restorative and responsive human services, N.Y: Routledge.

Chouliaras, A. (2010), “The reason of state:  theoretical  inquiries  and  consequences for the criminology of state crime” in  W.  Chambliss, R.   Michalowski, and R. Kramer (eds.), State Crime in the  Global Age, UK-USA: Willan Publishing, 2010, pp. 232-246.

Cohen, S. (2001), States of Denial: Knowing About Atrocities and Suffering. Cambridge: Polity Press

Daigle L. (2013): Victimology. The Essentials, London: Sage.

Davis F.E. (2019): The Little Book of Race and Restorative Justice: Black Lives, Healing, and US Social Transformation (Justice and Peacebuilding), N.Y: Good Books.

Dignan J. (2005): Understanding Victims and Restorative Justice, Open University Press, Maidenhead

Goodey J. (2005): Victims and Victimology, Harlow: Pearson Education.

Green, P., Ward T. (2004), State Crime. Governments, Violence and Corruption, London: Pluto Press

Johnstone G., van Ness D. (2006): Handbook of Restorative Justice, Willan, Devon.
Johnstone G. (2012): A Restorative Justice Reader, Oxford: Routledge

van Dijk J, van Kesteren J, Smit. P. (2008): Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective, Devon: Willan.

Walklate S. (ed) (2007): Handbook of Victims and Victimology, Cullompton, UK, and Portland: Willan

Zehr H. (2015): Changing Lenses: restorative justice for our times, Harrisonburg: Herald Press.




Alternative ways of examining a course in emergency situations


Teacher (full name): Margarita Gasparinatou, Assistant Professor
Contact details:
Supervisors: (1) No
Evaluation methods: (2) written assignment and exercises

written or oral examination with distance learning methods, provided that the integrity and reliability of the examination are ensured.

Implementation Instructions: (3) The examination of the course takes place on a day and time determined by the exams program, which is announced by the Secretariat of the Department of Social Policy. Before the exams, students must have registered in e-class in the respective course with their academic account, with which they can only take part in the exam. On the day of the exam, the topics of the exam are posted in the field (ASSIGNMENTS-EXERCISES), which the students are asked to answer and posting their answers in a file format (word), within the predetermined time of the exam. The answers are submitted in the field “ASSIGNMENTS-EXERCISES” of e-class. During the examination, students can use bibliographic sources, as the topics require critical thinking and deep understanding of the topics.

The assignments done during the semester are taken into account as supporting the grade of the written exams (reinforcement up to 3 points). To measure the support grade, it is required to obtain a grade that can be passed in the written exams (at least 5).

Throughout the examination it is possible to communicate with the teachers through the electronic platform at the link of the course. On the same platform, students who have this right and have declared it to the secretariat can be examined orally, on the same topics as those of the written examinations.


  • Please write YES or NO
  • Note down the evaluation methods used by the teacher, e.g.
  • written assignment or/and exercises
  • written or oral examination with distance learning methods, provided that the integrity and reliability of the examination are ensured.
  • In the Implementation Instructions section, the teacher notes down clear instructions to the students:
  1. a) in case of written assignment and / or exercises: the deadline (e.g. the last week of the semester), the means of submission, the grading system, the grade percentage of the assignment in the final grade and any other necessary information.
  2. b) in case of oral examination with distance learning methods: the instructions for conducting the examination (e.g. in groups of X people), the way of administration of the questions to be answered, the distance learning platforms to be used, the technical means for the implementation of the examination (microphone, camera, word processor, internet connection, communication platform), the hyperlinks for the examination, the duration of the exam, the grading system, the percentage of the oral exam in the final grade, the ways in which the inviolability and reliability of the exam are ensured and any other necessary information.
  3. c) in case of written examination with distance learning methods: the way of administration of the questions to be answered, the way of submitting the answers, the duration of the exam, the grading system, the percentage of the written exam of the exam in the final grade, the ways in which the integrity and reliability of the exam are ensured and any other necessary information.

There should be an attached list with the Student Registration Numbers only of students eligible to participate in the examination.